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Principles of Forensic DNA for Officers of the Court

Iso-Enzyme and Protein Typing

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photo of iso enzyme and protein typing
National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (see reuse policy).

First introduced into forensic applications in the 1970s, iso-enzyme and protein variant typing took the power of ABO grouping one step further. The typing of proteins and enzymes in biological evidence offered greater discriminating power, with some types occurring in less than 1% of the population.

Iso-enzyme testing encouraged forensic scientists to perform more work with less sample, allowing one sample to be tested for multiple enzyme types.

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