Welcome to NIJ’s Term of the Month. Each month we are featuring a term from our scientific research portfolios informing significant American justice system issues and solutions. Along with a definition, we are providing links to related resources — publications, videos, etc. — that illuminate the featured term.
April 2021 — Technology-Facilitated Abuse
Technology-Facilitated Abuse refers to harmful acts or courses of conduct facilitated through digital means that can compromise victims’ privacy and cause them to fear for their safety. Examples of such conduct are cyberstalking, nonconsensual pornography, swatting, doxing, and sextortion.
Personal harm from digital abuse extends far beyond the digital realm. These acts can cause serious psychological distress and damage relationships with family, friends, and partners and disrupt educational and professional pursuits.
Sextortion — A form of cyber extortion featuring an online attack on victim systems, for example through ransomware, in which offenders demand sexual images, sexual favors, or other things of value in exchange for stopping the attack.
Nonconsensual pornography — Distribution of nude or sexually explicit images or videos of an individual without consent.
Cyberstalking — Repeated use of electronic communications to stalk a person or group.
Doxing — Public release of private and sensitive personal identifying information about an individual without their consent. (The word “doxing” is derived from “documents.”)
Swatting — False report of an emergency to trigger an emergency response, specifically deployment of a SWAT team, to a location where no emergency exists.
- Ranking Needs for Fighting Digital Abuse: Sextortion, Swatting, Doxing, Cyberstalking and Nonconsensual Pornography
- Source RAND Report: Criminal Justice Strategies for Combating Nonconsensual Pornography, Sextortion, Doxing, and Swatting
Pediatric Bruising Patterns are tell-tale bruising patterns in injured children in order to differentiate between accidental injuries and physical abuse. Bruising on a child’s ear, buttocks, feet, or hands, for example, are not typical of accidental injuries and should alert physicians to possible abuse.
- Child Abuse or Accident? Bringing Science to Pediatric Emergency Departments and Forensic Investigations
- Impact Sites Representing Potential Bruising Locations Associated With Rearward Falls in Children
- Development of a Surrogate Bruising Detection System to Describe Bruising Patterns Associated with Common Childhood Falls
- Bruising as a Forensic Marker of Physical Elder Abuse
Using data, analysis, and research to complement experience and professional judgment, in order to provide the best possible police service to the public.
Evidence-Based Policing refers to scientific evidence, not evidence in the legal or investigative sense.