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Principles of Forensic DNA for Officers of the Court

Statistical Statement

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National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (see reuse policy).

If the profiles from the evidence sample and the known sample are the same, reports will usually include a statistical statement such as:

The frequency estimate of the DNA profile found in sample A is:
1 in X for Caucasians
1 in Y for African Americans
1 in Z for Hispanics

The larger the number in the frequency estimate, the more rare the genetic profile detected in the evidence (and the known sample). For more details on statistics and statistical reporting, see Module 7.

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