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Principles of Forensic DNA for Officers of the Court

Gender Typing

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Biological Sex Typing

Image of two graphs. One shows a line graph with an X chromosome, the second shows a line graph with both an X and a Y chromosome
National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (see reuse policy).

When amelogenin (found on sex chromosomes) is tested, the biological sex of the donor of a sample may be determined. Generally, females type as XX and males types as XY. The amelogenin data may aid in interpretation of a mixture containing male and female DNA.

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