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Principles of Forensic DNA for Officers of the Court

Reference Samples

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Photo of a child getting their mouth swabbed
National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (see reuse policy).

Obtaining additional known or reference samples from the petitioner, the victim, any consensual sex partners, family members, or other individuals may be necessary if not originally collected or if such samples are not suitable or cannot be located.

The issue of obtaining reference samples should be carefully considered. A court order to collect the samples may be necessary if the victim or third party will not agree to provide samples.

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