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Non-STR DNA Markers: SNPs, Y-STRs, LCN and mtDNA


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Other Nuclear DNA Markers & Technologies

Works Cited

  1. Hinds, D. A., L. L. Stuve, G. B. Nilsen, E. Halperin, E. Eskin, D. G. Ballinger, K. A. Frazer, D. R. Cox. 2005. Whole-genome patterns of common DNA variation in three human populations. Science 307 (5712): 1072–9.
  2. Crawford, D. C., and D. A. Nickerson. 2005. Definition and clinical importance of haplotypes. Annu Rev Med 56:303–20.
  3. Chakraborty, R., D. N. Stivers, B. Su, Y. Zhong, and B. Budowle B. 1999. The utility of short tandem repeat loci beyond human identification: Implications for development of new DNA typing systems. Electrophoresis 20 (8): 1682–96.
  4. Frudakis, T., K. Venkateswarlu, M. J. Thomas, Z. Gaskin, S. Ginjupalli, S. Gunturi, V. Ponnuswamy, S. Natarajan, and P. K. Nachimuthu. 2003. Aclassifier for the SNP-based inference of ancestry. J Forensic Sci 48 (4): 771–82.
  5. Schoske, R., P. M. Vallone, M. C. Kline, J. W. Redman, and J. M. Butler. 2004. High-throughput Y-STR typing of U.S. populations with 27 regions of the Y chromosome using two multiplex PCR assays. Forensic Sci Int 139 (2–3): 107–21.
  6. Ray, D. A., J. A. Walker, A. Hall, B. Llewellyn, J. Ballantyne, A. T. Christian, K. Turteltaub, and M. A. Batzer. 2005. Inference of human geographic origins using Alu insertion polymorphisms. Forensic Sci Int 153 (2–3): 117–24.
  7. Frudakis, T., M. Thomas, Z. Gaskin, K. Venkateswarlu, K. S. Chandra, S. Ginjupalli, S. Gunturi, S. Natrajan, V. K. Ponnuswamy, and K. N. Ponnuswamy. 2003. Sequences associated with human iris pigmentation. Genetics 165 (4): 2071–83..
  8. Breeze, Roger, Bruce Budowle, and Steven Schutzer. 2005. Microbial Forensics. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.
  9. Budowle, B. 2004. SNP typing strategies. Forensic Sci Int Suppl. no.146:S139–42.
  10. Lahn, B. T., N. M. Pearson, and K. Jegalian. 2001. The human Y chromosome, in the light of evolution. National Review Genetics 2 (3): 207–16.
  11. Skaletsky, H., T. Kuroda-Kawaguchi, P. J. Minx, H. S. Cordum, L. Hillier, L. G. Brown, S. Repping, et al. 2003. The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes. Nature 423 (6942): 825–37.
  12. Jobling, M. A., and C. Tyler-Smith. 2003 The human Y chromosome: An evolutionary marker comes of age. National Review Genetics 4 (8): 598–612.
  13. Bandelt, H. J., P. Forster, B. C. Sykes, and M. B. Richards. 1995. Mitochondrial portraits of human populations using median networks. Genetics 141 (2): 743–53.
  14. Roewer, L., M. Krawczak, S. Willuweit, M. Nagy, C. Alves, A. Amorim, K. Anslinger, et al. 2001. Online reference database of European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes. Forensic Sci Int 118 (2–3): 106–13.
  15. Hubert, R., J. L. Weber, K. Schmitt, L. Zhang, and N. Arnheim, 1992. A new source of polymorphic DNA markers for sperm typing: Analysis of microsatellite repeats in single cells. Am J Hum Genet 51 (5): 985–91.
  16. Kayser, M., A. Caglia, D. Corach, N. Fretwell, C. Gehrig, G. Graziosi, F. Heidom, et al. 1997. Evaluation of Y-chromosomal STRs: A multicenter study. Int J Legal Med 110 (3): 125–33.
  17. Gill, P., J. Whitaker, C. Flaxman, N. Brown, and J. Buckleton. 2000. An investigation of the rigor of interpretation rules for STRs derived from less than 100 pg of DNA. Forensic Sci Int 112 (1): 17–40.
  18. Sun, G., R. Kaushal, P. Pal, M. Wolujewicz, D. Smelser, H. Cheng, M. Lu, R. Chakraborty, L. Jin, and R. Deka. 2005. Whole-genome amplification: Relative efficiencies of the current methods. Legal Medicine (Tokyo) 7 (5): 279–86.
  19. Walsh, P. S., H. A. Erlich, and R. Higuchi. 1992. Preferential PCR amplification of alleles: Mechanisms and solutions. PCR Methods and Applications 1 (4): 241–50.
  20. American Veterinary Medical Association and Center for Information Management Staff. 1997. U.S. Pet Ownership & Demographics Sourcebook. 2002. N.p.: Center for Information Management American V.
  21. D'Andrea, F., F. Fridez, and R. Coquoz. 1998. Preliminary experiments on the transfer of animal hair during simulated criminal behavior. J Forensic Sci 43 (6): 1257–8.
  22. Menotti-Raymond, M., V. David, L. Wachter, N. Yuhki, and S. J. O'Brien. 2003. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based assay for estimating DNA yield extracted from domestic cat specimens. Croatian Medical Journal 44 (3): 327–31.
  23. Menotti-Raymond, M., V. A. David, L. A. Lyons, A. A. Schaffer, J. F. Tomlin, M. K. Hutton, and S. J. O'Brien. 1999. A genetic linkage map of microsatellites in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Genomics 57 (1): 9–23.
  24. Murphy, W. J., S. Sun, Z. Chen, N. Yuhki, D. Hirschmann, M. Menotti-Raymond, and S. J. O'Brien. 2000. A radiation hybrid map of the cat genome: Implications for comparative mapping. Genome Res 10 (5): 691–702.
  25. O'Brien, S. J., M. Menotti-Raymond, W. J. Murphy, and N. Yuhki. 2002. The feline genome project. Annu Rev Genet 36: 657–86.
  26. Menotti-Raymond, M., V. A. David, J. C. Stephens, L. A. Lyons, and S. J. O'Brien. 1997. Genetic individualization of domestic cats using feline STR loci for forensic applications. J Forensic Sci 42 (6):. 1039–51.
  27. Butler, J. M., V. A. David, S. J. O'Brien, and M. Menotti-Raymond. 2002. The "MeowPlex": A new DNA test using tetranucleotide STR markers for the domestic cat. Profiles in DNA, Promega publication 5 (2): 7–10. http://www.promega.com/profiles/502/ProfilesinDNA_502_07.pdf.
  28. Ostrander, E. A., G. F. Sprague Jr., and J. Rine. 1993. Identification and characterization of dinucleotide repeat (CA)n markers for genetic mapping in dog. Genomics 16 (1): 207–13.
  29. Francisco, L. V., A. A. Langston, C. S. Mellersh, C. L. Neal, and E. A. Ostrander. 1996. A class of highly polymorphic tetranucleotide repeats for canine genetic mapping. Mamm Genome 7 (5): 359–62.
  30. Zajc, I., C. S. Mellersh, and J. Sampson. 1997. Variability of canine microsatellites within and between different dog breeds. Mamm Genome 8 (3): 182–5.
  31. Zajc, I., and J. Sampson. 1999. Utility of canine microsatellites in revealing the relationships of pure bred dogs. J Hered 90 (1): 104–7.
  32. Schlapfer, J., G. Dolf, N. Saitbekova, and C. Schelling. 1999. Twelve novel cosmid-derived canine microsatellites. Anim Genet 30 (5): 387–8.
  33. Jouquand, S., C. Priat, C. Hitte, P. Lachaume, C. Andre, and F. Galibert. 2000. Identification and characterization of a set of 100 tri- and dinucleotide microsatellites in the canine genome. Anim Genet 31 (4): 266–72.
  34. Richman, M., C. S. Mellersh, C. Andre, F. Galibert, and E. A. Ostrander. 2001. Characterization of a minimal screening set of 172 microsatellite markers for genome-wide screens of the canine genome. J Biochem Biophys Methods 47 (1–2): 137–49.
  35. Irion, D., A. L. Schaffer, T. R. Famula, M. L. Eggleston, S. S. Hughes, and N. C. Pedersen. 2003. Analysis of genetic variation in 28 dog breed populations with 100 microsatellite markers. J Hered 94 (1): 81–7.
  36. Halverson, J., and C. Basten. 2005. A PCR multiplex and database for forensic DNA identification of dogs. J Forensic Sci. 50 (2): 352–63.
  37. Day, A. 2001. Nonhuman DNA testing increases DNA's power to identify and convict criminals . Silent Witness 6 (1).
  38. Kim, K. S., S. E. Lee, H. W. Jeong, and J. H. Ha. 1998. The complete nucleotide sequence of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mitochondrial genome. Mol Phylogenet Evol 10 (2): 210–20.
  39. Wetton, J. H., J. E. Higgs, A. C. Spriggs, C. A. Roney, C. S. Tsang, and A. P. Foster. 2003. Mitochondrial profiling of dog hairs. Forensic Sci Int 133 (3): 235–41.
  40. Savolainen, P., L. Arvestad, and J. Lundeberg. 2000. A novel method for forensic DNA investigations: Repeat-type sequence analysis of tandemly repeated mtDNA in domestic dogs. J Forensic Sci,. 45 (5): 990–9.
  41. Schneider, P. M., Y. Seo, and C. Rittner. 1999. Forensic mtDNA hair analysis excludes a dog from having caused a traffic accident. Int J Legal Med 112 (5): 315–6.
  42. Andrasko, J., and B. Rosen. 1994. Sensitive identification of hemoglobin in bloodstains from different species by high performance liquid chromatography with combined UV and fluorescence detection. J Forensic Sci. 39 (4): 1018–25.
  43. Czesny, S., K. Dabrowski, J. E. Christensen, J. V. Eenennaam, and S. Doroshov. 2000. Discrimination of wild and domestic origin of sturgeon ova based on lipids and fatty acid analysis. Aquaculture. 189: 145–53.
  44. Espinoza, E. O., N. C. Lindley, K. M. Gordon, J. A. Ekhoff, and M. A. Kirms. 1999. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of blood for differentiation of species. Anal Biochem 268 (2): 252–61.
  45. Balitzki-Korte, B., K. Anslinger, C. Bartsch, and B. Rolf. 2005. Species identification by means of pyrosequencing the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Int J Legal Med 119 (5): 291–4.
  46. Bataille, M., et al. 1999. Multiplex amplification of mitochondrial DNA for human and species identification in forensic evaluation. Forensic Sci Int. 99 (3): 165–70.
  47. Bellis, C., K. J. Ashton, L. Freney, B. Blair, and L. R. Griffiths. 2003. A molecular genetic approach for forensic animal species identification. Forensic Sci Int 134 (2–3): 99–108..
  48. Branicki, W., T. Kupiec, and R. Pawlowski. 2003. Validation of cytochrome b sequence analysis as a method of species identification. J Forensic Sci. 48 (1): 83–7.
  49. Bravi, C. M., J. P. Liron, P. M. Mirol, M. V. Ripoli, P. Peral-Garcia, and G. Giovambattista. 2004. A simple method for domestic animal identification in Argentina using PCR-RFLP analysis of cytochrome b gene. Legal Medicine (Tokyo). 6 (4): 246–51.
  50. Parson, W., K. Pegoraro, H. Niederstatter, M. Foger, and M. Steinlechner. 2000. Species identification by means of the cytochrome b gene. Int J Legal Med 114 (1–2): 23–8.
  51. Dietmaier, W., A. Hartmann, S. Wallinger, E. Heinmoller, T. Kerner, E. Endl, K. W. Jauch, F. Hofstadter F. and J. Ruschoff. J. 1999. Multiple mutation analyses in single tumor cells with improved whole genome amplification. Am J Pathol 154 (1): 83–95.
  52. Zehner, R., S. Zimmermann, and D. Mebs. 1998. RFLP and sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene of selected animals and man: Methodology and forensic application. Int J Legal Med 111 (6): 323–7.
  53. Miller Coyle, H., C. Ladd, T. Palmbach, and H. C. Lee. 2001. The Green Revolution: Botanical contributions to forensics and drug enforcement. Croatian Medical Journal 42 (3): 340–5.
  54. Szibor, R., C. Schubert, R. Schoning, D. Krause, and U. Wendt. 1998. Pollen analysis reveals murder season. Nature 395 (6701): 449–50.
  55. Powell, W., G. C. Machray, and J. Provan. 1996. Polymorphism revealed by simple sequence repeats. Trends in Plant Science 1 (7): 215–222.
  56. Tingey, S. V., and J. P. del Tufo. 1993. Genetic analysis with random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Plant Physiol 101 (2): 349–52.
  57. Yoon, C.K. 1993. Forensic science: Botanical witness for the prosecution. Science 260 (5110): 894–5.
  58. Congiu, L., M. Chicca, R. Cella, R. Rossi, and G. Bernacchia. 2000. The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to identify strawberry varieties: A forensic application. Mol Ecol 9 (2): 229–32.
  59. Alghanim, H. J., and J. R. Almirall. 2003. Development of microsatellite markers in Cannabis sativa for DNA typing and genetic relatedness analyses. Anal Bioanal Chem 376 (8): 1225–33.
  60. Gilmore, S., R. Peakall, and J. Robertson. 2003. Short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers are hypervariable and informative in Cannabis sativa: Implications for forensic investigations. Forensic Sci Int 131 (1): 65–74.
  61. Hsieh, H. M., R. J. Hou, L. C. Tsai, C. S. Wei, S. W. Liu, L. H. Huang, Y. C. Kuo, A. Linacre, and J. C. Lee. 2003. A highly polymorphic STR locus in Cannabis sativa. Forensic Sci Int. 131 (1): 53–8.
  62. Jagadish, V., J. Robertson, and A. Gibbs. 1996. RAPD analysis distinguishes Cannabis sativa samples from different sources. Forensic Sci Int 79 (2): 113–21.
  63. Linacre, A., and J. Thorpe. 1998. Detection and identification of cannabis by DNA. Forensic Sci Int 91 (1): 71–6.
  64. Miller Coyle, H., T. Palmbach, N. Juliano, C. Ladd, and H. C. Lee. 2003. An overview of DNA methods for the identification and individualization of marijuana. Croatian Medical Journal 44 (3): 315–21.
  65. Hsu, V., S. L. Lukacs, T. Handzel, J. Hayslett, S. Harper, T. Hales, V. A. Semenova, et al. 2002. Opening a bacillus anthracis-containing envelope, Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C.: The public health response. Emerg Infect Dis 8 (10): 1039–43.
  66. Budowle, B., S. E. Schutzer, A. Einseln, L. C. Kelley, A. C. Walsh, J. A. Smith, B. L. Marrone, J. Robertson, and J. Campos. 2003. Public health: Building microbial forensics as a response to bioterrorism. Science 301 (5641): 1852–3.
  67. Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics (SWGMGF). 2003. Quality assurance guidelines for laboratories performing microbial forensic work. Forensic Science Communications 5 (4). http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/oct2003/2003_10_guide01.htm.

Online Links

  • Endangered Species Act
  • MeowPlex
  • Recommendations for microbial DNA
  • Revised Validation Guidelines by SWGDAM
    http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/websites/fbi.gov/www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/ backissu/july2004/standards/2004_03_standards02.htm
  • SNap shot™ assay
    https://products.appliedbiosystems.com/ab/en/US/adirect/ab? cmd=catNavigate2&catID=600762&tab=DetailInfo
  • SNPstream® UHT
  • Stockmarks for Dogs Canine 1 Amplification Kit
    https://products.appliedbiosystems.com/ab/en/US/adirect/ab? cmd=catNavigate2&catID=600792&tab=Literature
  • SWGDAM recommended core loci
    http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/july2004/standards/ 2004_03_standards03.htm
  • Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD)

Non-Nuclear DNA Markers

Works Cited

  1. Copeland, William C., ed. 2002. Mitochondrial DNA: Methods and protocols. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
  2. Robin, E. D., and R. Wong.. 1988. Mitochondrial DNA molecules and virtual number of mitochondria per cell in mammalian cells. J Cell Physiol 136 (3): 507–13.
  3. Anderson, S., A. T. Bankier, G. B. Barrell, M. H. de Bruijn, A. R. Coulson, J. Drouin, I. C. Eperon, et al. 1981. Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome. Nature 290 (5806):457–65.
  4. Gray, M. W. 1992. The endosymbiont hypothesis revisited. Int Rev Cytol 141:233–357.
  5. Grivell, L. A. 1997. Mitochondria. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology, ed. Sybil P.Parker 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.Baechtel, F. S. 1988. The identification and individualization of semen stains. In vol. 2 of Forensic science handbook, ed. Richard E. Saferstein, 347–92. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  6. Budowle, Bruce, Jenifer Smith, Tamyra Moretti, and Joseph DiZinno. 2000. DNA typing protocols: Molecular biology and forensic analysis. Natick, MA: Eaton Publishing.
  7. Greenberg, B. D., J. E. Newbold, and A. Sugino. 1983. Intraspecific nucleotide sequence variability surrounding the origin of replication in human mitochondrial DNA. Gene 21 (1–2): 33–49.
  8. Anderson, T. D., J. P. Ross, R. K. Roby, D. A. Lee, and M. M. Holland. 1999. A validation study for the extraction and analysis of DNA from human nail material and its application to forensic casework. J Forensic Sci 44 (5): 1053–6.
  9. Ginther, C., L. Issel-Tarver, and M. C. King. 1992. Identifying individuals by sequencing mitochondrial DNA from teeth. Nat Genet 2 (2): 135–8.
  10. Lutz, S., H. Wittig, H. J. Weisser, J. Heizmann, A. Junge, N. Dimo-Simonin, W. Parson, et al. 2000. Is it possible to differentiate mtDNA by means of HVIII in samples that cannot be distinguished by sequencing the HVI and HVII regions? Forensic Sci Int 113 (1–3): 97–101.
  11. Bini, C., S. Ceccardi, D. Luiselli, G. Ferri, S. Pelotti, C. Colalongo, M. Falconi, and G. Pappalardo. 2003. Different informativeness of the three hypervariable mitochondrial DNA regions in the population of Bologna (Italy). Forensic Sci Int 135 (1): 48–52.
  12. Andrews, R. M., I. Kubacka, P. F. Chinnery, R. N. Lightowlers, D. M. Turnbull, and N. Howell. 1999. Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge reference sequence for human mitochondrial DNA. Nat Genet 23 (2): 147.
  13. Budowle, B., M. R. Wilson, J. A. DiZinno, C. Stauffer, M. A. Fasano, M. M. Holland, and K. L. Monson. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA regions HVI and HVII population data. Forensic Sci Int 103 (1): 23–35.
  14. Melton, T., S. Clifford, M. Kayser, I. Nasidze, M. Batzer, and M. Stoneking. 2001. Diversity and heterogeneity in mitochondrial DNA of North American populations. J Forensic Sci 46 (1): 46–52.
  15. Ivanov, P. L., M. J. Wadhams, R. K. Roby, M. M. Holland, V. W. Weedn, and T. J. Parsons. 1996. Mitochondrial DNA sequence heteroplasmy in the Grand Duke of Russia Georgij Romanov establishes the authenticity of the remains of Tsar Nicholas II. Nat Gen 12 (4): 417–20.
  16. Bendall, K. E., and B. C. Sykes. 1995. Length heteroplasmy in the first hypervariable segment of the human mtDNA control region. Am J Hum Genet 57 (2): 248–56.
  17. Marchington, D. R., G. M. Hartshorne, D. Barlow, and J. Poulton. 1997. Homopolymeric tract heteroplasmy in mtDNA from tissues and single oocytes: Support for a genetic bottleneck. Am J Hum Genet 60 (2): 408–16.
  18. Wilson, M. R., M. W. Allard, K. Monson, K. W. P. Miller, and B. Budowle. 2002. Further discussion of the consistent treatment of length variants in the human mitochondrial DNA control region. Forensic Science Communications 4 (4). http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/oct2002/wilson.htm.
  19. Wallace, D. C., G. Singh, M. T. Lott, J. A. Hodge, T. G. Schurr, A. M. Lezza, L. J. Elsas 2nd, and E. K. Nikoskelainen. 1988. Mitochondrial DNA mutation associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Science 242 (4884): 1427–30.
  20. Baker, L. E., W. F. McCormick, and K. J. Matteson. 2001. A silica-based mitochondrial DNA extraction method applied to forensic hair shafts and teeth. J Forensic Sci 46 (1): 126–30.
  21. Benedix, D. C., N. P. Herrmann, V. A. Haskins, and L. E. Flournoy. 1999. Analysis of dental remains from Honduran ossuary caves. Am J Phys Anthropol Suppl. no. 28:90.
  22. Holland, M. M., D. L. Fisher, L. G. Mitchell, W. C. Rodriguez, J. J. Canik, C. R. Merril, and V. W. Weedn. 1993. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of human skeletal remains: Identification of remains from the Vietnam War. J Forensic Sci 38 (3): 542–53.
  23. Hoss, M., and S. Paabo. 1993. DNA extraction from Pleistocene bones by a silica-based purification method. Nucleic Acids Res 21 (16): 3913–4.
  24. Potsch, L., U. Meyer, S. Rothschild, P. M. Schneider, and C. Rittner. 1992. Application of DNA techniques for identification using human dental pulp as a source of DNA. Int J Legal Med 105 (3):139–43.
  25. Smith, B. C., D. L. Fisher, V. W. Weedn, G. R. Warnock, and M. M. Holland. 1993. A systematic approach to the sampling of dental DNA . J Forensic Sci 38 (5):1194–209.
  26. Sweet, D. J., and C. H. Sweet. 1995. DNA analysis of dental pulp to link incinerated remains of homicide victim to crime scene. J Forensic Sci 40:310–4.
  27. Wilson, M. R., D. Polanskey, J. Butler, J. A. DiZinno, J. Replogle, and B. Budowle. 1995. Extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA from human hair shafts. Biotechniques 18 (4): 662–9.
  28. Stoneking, M., D. Hedgecock, R. G. Higuchi, L. Vigilant, and H. A. Erlich. 1991. Population variation of human mtDNA control region sequences detected by enzymatic amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Am J Hum Genet 48 (2): 370–82.
  29. Fildes, N., and R. Reynolds. 1995. Consistency and reproducibility of AmpliType PM results between seven laboratories: Field trial results. J Forensic Sci 40 (2): 279–86.
  30. Sanger, F., S. Nicklen, and A. R. Coulson. 1977. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 74 (12):5463–7.
  31. Wilson, M. R., J. A. DiZinno, D. Polanskey, J. Replogle, and B. Budowle. 1995. Validation of mitochondrial DNA sequencing for forensic casework analysis. Int J Legal Med 108 (2):68–74.
  32. Fisher, D. L., M. M. Holland, L. Mitchell, P. S. Sledzik, A. W. Wilcox, M. Wadhams, and V. W. Weedn. 1993. Extraction, evaluation, and amplification of DNA from decalcified and undecalcified United States Civil War bone. J Forensic Sci 38 (1): 60–8.
  33. Gabriel, M. N., E. F. Huffine, J. H. Ryan, M. M. Holland, and T. J. Parsons. 2001. Improved mtDNA sequence analysis of forensic remains using a "mini-primer set" amplification strategy. J Forensic Sci 46 (2): 247–53.
  34. Roby, R. K., E. T. Bieschke, E. J. Mar, H. Baum, and R. Shaler. 2004. The utility of a mitochondrial DNA automated data analysis system as a screening tool in mass disasters. 15th International Symposium on Human Identification Expert Systems Breakout Session, October 6, 2004, Phoenix, AZ.

Online Links