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Firearms Examiner Training

Selected Bibliography

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Selected Bibliography

The Selected Bibliography is a list of the writings that have been used in the assemblage of the training program and is not a complete record of all the works and sources consulted. It is a compilation of the substance and range of readings and extensive experience of the subject matter experts.

Module 01

  1. Armstrong, T. (n.d.) Multiple intelligences. 
  2. CAPSOL styles of learning. (n.d.) 
  3. Collins, A, J.S. Brown, and A. Holum. 1991. Cognitive apprenticeship: Making thinking visible. American Educator 15(3): 6-46.
  4. Commonwealth of Virginia (n.d.). Competencies. 
  5. Kesten, C. 1987. Independent learning. In Understanding the Common Essential Learnings: A Handbook for Teachers , Chapter 8. Saskatchewan Education. http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/policy/cels/el7.html
  6. Knowles, M.S. 1970. The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy . New York: Association Press.
  7. Kruse, K. (n.d.). The magic of learner motivation: The ARCS model. 
  8. Morrison, GR, S.M. Ross, and J.E. Kemp. 2001. Designing Effective Instruction , 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  9. Office for Domestic Preparedness. 2003. ODP Approach for Blended Learning .
  10. Rea, D. 2003. Sustaining teachable moments on the complex edge of chaos. Presented at: American Educational Research Association Conference, Chicago, Illinois: April 2125, 2003.

Module 02

  1. Berg, S. 1965. The history of firearms identification. Identification News 15 (6): 5-15.
  2. Berg, S. 1979. The drama of forensic ballistics. AFTE J 11 (3): 44.
  3. Biasotti, A. A. 1959. A statistical study of the individual characteristics of fired bullets. J Forensic Sci 4 (1): 34-50.
  4. Biasotti, A. A. 1964. The principles of evidence evaluation as applied to firearms and tool mark identification. J Forensic Sci 9 (4): 428-433.
  5. Biasotti, A. A. 1981. Bullet bearing surface composition and rifling (bore) conditions as variables in the reproduction of individual characteristics on fired bullets. AFTE J 13 (2): 94.
  6. Ramsland, K. (n.d.) The pressure is on. Ballistics: The Science of Guns . Court TV Crime Library website; retrieved December 18, 2007.
  7. Daubert on the Web. The Frye opinion. Web page retrieved December 18, 2007.
  8. Davis, J.E. 1958. Introduction to Tool Marks, Firearms and the Striagr . Springfield: Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd.
  9. Forensic Technology, Inc. All products. Web page retrieved December 18, 2007.
    http://www.forensictechnologyinc.com/p1.html
  10. Hatcher, J.S. 1947. Hatchers Notebook . Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co.
  11. National Clearing House for Science Technology and the Law. 2004. United States v. Foster. Web page retrieved December 18, 2007.
    http://www.ncstl.org/search/results/view/532
  12. National Clearing House for Science Technology and the Law. 2003. United States v. ODriscoll. Web page retrieved December 18, 2007.
    http://www.ncstl.org/search/results/view/549
  13. Presidents DNA Initiative. Principles of Forensic DNA for Officers of the Court . Web page retrieved December 18, 2007. https://nij.ojp.gov/nij-hosted-online-training-courses/principles-forensic-dna-officers-court/home
  14. Smith, B.C. Summer 1975. The last illness and death of General Thomas Jonathan (Stonewall) Jackson. VMI Alumni Rev .
  15. State v. Johnson , 2006-Ohio-209.
  16. Tulleners, F.A. 2001. Technical Evaluation: Feasibility of a Ballistics Imaging Database for All New Handgun Sales . Sacramento: California Department of Justice.
  17. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General. 2005. NIBIN program history. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives National Integrated Ballistic Information Network . Audit report 05-30. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.
  18. Warniment, D. 2003. Brownsville investigation A historical cartridge case comparison. AFTE J 34 (4): 375.

Module 03

  1. Ball, P., and D. Mikko. 1992. Proofmarks. AFTE J 24 (1): 14-15.
  2. Barnes, Frank. 1997. Cartridges of the World . Northbrook: DBI Books, Inc.
  3. Bydal, B.A. 1990. Percussion primer mixes. AFTE J 22 (1): 1-26.
  4. Dillon, J.H. 1991. The manufacture of conventional smokeless powder. AFTE J 23 (2): 682-688.
  5. Dillon, J.H. 1991. Black powder background. AFTE J 23 (2): 689-693.
  6. Gallup, A., and D.F. Schaffer. 1992. La Marine: The French Colonial Soldier in Canada 1745 1761 . Bowie: Heritage Books Inc.
  7. George, W. 1988. Black powder firearms: Safety precautions. AFTE J 20 (1): 57-58.
  8. Greener, W.W. 1910. The Gun and Its Development . New York: Cassel and Company.
  9. Hackley, F.W., W.H. Woodin., and E.L. Scranton. 1967. History of Modern U.S. Military Small Arms Ammunition . New York: MacMillan.
  10. Hatcher, J.S., F.J. Jury, and J. Weller. 1957. Firearms Investigation, Identification, and Evidence . Harrisburg: Stackpole Books.
  11. Mathews, J.H. 1962. Firearms Identification, Volume I . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  12. National Rifle Association. 1961. Illustrated Reloading Handbook . National Rifle Association.
  13. Smith, W.H.B. 1946. The NRA Book of Small Arms: Volume I - Pistols and Revolvers . Harrisburg: NRA/Military Service Publishing Company.
  14. Smith, W.H.B. 1948. The NRA Book of Small Arms: Volume II - Rifles . Harrisburg: NRA/Military Service Publishing Company.
  15. Smith, W.H.B., and J.E. Smith. 1973. Small Arms of the World, 10th Edition. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books.
  16. Speer. 2007. Speer Reloading Manual #13 and #14 . ATK Ammunition Systems Group
  17. Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI). Smokeless Powder. Wilton: Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute
  18. Styers, G.R. 1987. History of black powder. AFTE J 19 (4): 443-446.

Module 04

  1. Biasotti, A. 1981. Rifling methods A review and assessment of the individual characteristics produced. AFTE J 13 (3): 34-61.
  2. Bird, J. Feb. 1996. How handguns are made. Handguns .
  3. Brown, C., and W. Bryant. 1995. Consecutively rifled gun barrels present in most crime labs. AFTE J 27 (3): 254-258.
  4. Brundage, D. 1998. The identification of consecutively rifled gun barrels. AFTE J 30 (3): 438.
  5. Coffman, B. 2003. Computer numerical control (CNC) production tooling and repeatable characteristics on 10 Remington model 870 production run breech bolts. AFTE J 35 (1): 49-54.
  6. DeFrance, C., and M. Van Arsdale. 2003. Validation study of electrochemical rifling AFTE J 35 (1): 35-37.
  7. Hatcher, J.S. 1947. Hatchers Notebook . Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co.
  8. Jones, F., H. Ryffel, E. Oberg, C McCauley, and R Heald. 2004. Machinerys Handbook . 27th Edition. New York: Industrial Press Inc.
  9. Lopez, L., and S. Grew. 2000. Consecutive machined Ruger bolt faces. AFTE J 32 (1): 19-24.
  10. Lutz, M. August 1970. Consecutive revolver barrels. AFTE Newsletter.
  11. Mathews, J.H. 1962. Firearms Identification, Volume I . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  12. Matty, W., and T. Johnson. 1984. A comparison of manufacturing marks on Smith & Wesson firing pins. AFTE J 16 (3): 51-56.
  13. Matty, W. 1985. A comparison of three individual barrels produced from one button rifled barrel blank. AFTE J 17 (3): 64-69.
  14. Matty, W. 1999. Lorcin L9MM and L380 pistol breechface toolmark patterns. AFTE J 31 (2): 134-137.
  15. Peterson, H.L. May and June 1960. The development of firearms. American Rifleman.
  16. Rosati, C. 2000. Examination of four consecutively manufactured bunter tools. AFTE J 32 (1): 49-50.
  17. Ruger. March 1997. Rugers gun talk rifled barrels. Guns and Ammo .
  18. Savage Arms, Inc. http://www.savagearms.com/
  19. SigSauer. Owners Manual .
  20. Sturm, Ruger & Co., Inc. Ruger Instruction Manuals http://www.ruger.com/index.html?r=firearms
  21. Weller, J. Jan. 1971. The quiet revolution in U.S. firearms manufacture, Part 1. American Rifleman .
  22. Weller, J. Feb. 1971. The quiet revolution in U.S. firearms manufacture, Part 2. American Rifleman .
  23. Weller, J. Mar. 1971. The The quiet revolution in U.S. firearms manufacture, Part 3. American Rifleman .

Module 05

  1. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI). 1993. Centerfire Pistol & Revolver Voluntary Performance Standards. Wilton: Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute.
  2. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI). 1992. Centerfire Rifle Voluntary Performance Standards. Wilton: Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute.
  3. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI). 1992. Rimfire Voluntary Performance Standards. Wilton: Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute.
  4. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI). 1992. Shotshell Voluntary Performance Standards. Wilton: Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute.
  5. Barnes, Frank. 1997. Cartridges of the World . Northbrook: DBI Books, Inc.
  6. Biasotti, A.A. 1981. Rifling methods A review and assessment of the individual characteristics produced. AFTE J 13 (3): 34-61.
  7. Brown, C, and W. Bryant. 1995. Consecutively rifled gun barrels present in most crime labs. AFTE J 27 (3): 254-258.
  8. Brundage, D. 1998. The identification of consecutively rifled gun barrels. AFTE J 30 (3): 438-444.
  9. Coffman, B. 2003. Computer numerical control (CNC) production tooling and repeatable characteristics on 10 Remington Model 870 production run breech bolts. AFTE J 35 (1): 49-54.
  10. Davis, T.L. 1972. The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives . Las Vegas: Angriff Press.
  11. DeFrance, C., and M. Van Arsdale. 2003. Validation study of electrochemical rifling. AFTE J 35 (1): 35-37.
  12. Frost, G.E. 1990. Ammunition Making, An Insiders Story . Fairfax: National Rifle Association.
  13. Hackley, F.W., W.H. Woodin., and E.L. Scranton. 1967. History of Modern U.S. Military Small Arms Ammunition . New York: Macmillan.
  14. Hatcher, J.S. 1947. Hatchers Notebook. Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co.
  15. Lopez, L., and S. Grew. 2000. Consecutive machined Ruger bolt faces. AFTE J 32 (1): 19-24.
  16. Lutz, M. Consecutive revolver barrels. AFTE Newsletter August 1970.
  17. Matty, W., and T. Johnson. 1984. A comparison of manufacturing marks on Smith & Wesson firing pins. AFTE J 16 (3): 51-56.
  18. Matty, W. 1985. A comparison of three individual barrels produced from one button rifled barrel blank. AFTE J 17 (3): 64-69.
  19. Matty, W. 1999. Lorcin L9MM and L380 pistol breechface toolmark patterns. AFTE J 31 (2): 134-137.
  20. Rosati, C. 2000. Examination of four consecutively manufactured bunter tools. AFTE J 32 (1): 49-50.

Module 06

  1. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Handbook of Forensic Services.
  2. Fisher, B.A.J. 2003. Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation . Boca Raton: CRC Press.
  3. Hatcher, J.S. 1947. Hatchers Notebook. 300-333. Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co.
  4. Lee, H.C. 2001. Henry Lee's Crime Scene Handbook . San Diego: Academic Press.
  5. Saferstein, R. 2006. Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science , 9th Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
  6. Tilstone, W.J., K.A. Savage, and L.A. Clark. 2006. Forensic Science: An Encyclopedia of History, Methods, and Techniques . Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Module 07

  1. Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners. http://afte.org/
  2. Biasotti, A.A. 1979. Photomicrography and illumination: some critical factors. AFTE J 11 (4): 60.
  3. Chamberlain, D. 1972. Microscope comparison bridge. AFTE J 4 (1): 9.
  4. Cook, C.W. 1985. Basic optics. AFTE J 17 (4): 14.
  5. Dutton, G. 2004. Firearms identification, comparison microscope & the Spencer Lens Co. AFTE J 34 (2): 186-198.
  6. Dutton, G. 2004. LEICA FSC Comparison microscope. AFTE J 36 (4): 256-261.
  7. Forensic Technology WAI Inc.
  8. Hatcher, J.S. 1947. Hatchers Notebook . 300-333. Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co.
  9. Haemmerle, C. 1990. Easily made diffusers for fiber optic illuminators. AFTE J 22 (4): 446-447.
  10. Hueske, E.E. 1990. Preliminary report on the application of fiber optic videomicroscopy to firearm and toolmark examination. AFTE J 22 (3): 280-287.
  11. Hueske, E.E. 1993. Application of fiber optic videomicroscopy to firearm and toolmark examination: A further look. AFTE J 25 (2): 132-139.
  12. Lansing, J.F. 1973. Customized comparison microscope. AFTE J 5 (5):25.
  13. Lutz, M.C. 1986. Evaluation of new fiber optics system. AFTE J 18 (1): 12.
  14. Martini, L.2005. Adoption of a toolmakers microscope for bullet measurements. AFTE J 37 (3): 194-196.
  15. Mathews, J.H. 1962. Firearms Identification , Volume I. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  16. Moran, B. 1997. Building an inexpensive high intensity fluorescent lighting system for the comparison microscope. AFTE J 29 (1): 49-54.
  17. National Institute of Standards and Technology. http://www.nist.gov/index.html
  18. Scientific Working Group for Firearms and Toolmarks. 
  19. Thornton, J. 1989. Some historical notes on the comparison microscope. AFTE J 21 (2): 215-217.
  20. Wikipedia contributors. Micrometer (device). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php ?title=Micrometer_%28device%29&oldid=165622655
  21. Ziegler, P.A. 1983. Examination techniques: The beam splitter and reverse lighting. AFTE J 15 (2): 37.

Module 08

  1. Burrard, G. 1962. The Identification of Firearms and Forensic Ballistics . New York: A.S. Barnes & Co.
  2. Chenow, R.W. 1987. Conversion of the Intratec Tec 9 to full auto. AFTE J 19 (2): 169-171.
  3. Conrad, W.E. 1980. Firing pistol ammunition in a revolver. AFTE J 12 (1): 33.
  4. Davis, J.E. 1958. Introduction to Tool Marks, Firearms and the Striagr . Springfield: Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd.
  5. Gunther, J.D., and C.O. Gunther. 1935. The Identification of Firearms . New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
  6. Hatcher, J. 1935. Textbook of Firearms Investigation, Identification and Evidence . Plantersville: Small-Arms Technical Publishing Co.
  7. Hatcher, J. 1947. Hatchers Notebook . Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co.
  8. Hatcher, J.S., F.J. Jury. and J. Weller. 1957. Firearms Investigation, Identification, and Evidence . Harrisburg: Stackpole Books.
  9. Heard, B. 1997. Handbook of Firearms and Ballistics - Examining and Interpreting Forensic Evidence . West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  10. Koffman, A., A. Zeichner, B. Glattstein, and T. Kahana. 2002. Firearms report paper 1998 2001. AFTE J 34 (4): 409-436.
  11. Laskowski, G.E. 1995. Full auto conversion of an UZI 9mm semiautomatic pistol. AFTE J 27 (4): 287-292.
  12. Lipscomb, J.W., and L.R. Harden. 1985. Evaluating trigger mechanisms for sensitivity to shock. AFTE J 15 (4): 4.
  13. Love, E.W. 1978. Full automatic AR-15 rifle. AFTE J 10 (2): 46.
  14. Mathews, J.H. 1962. Firearms Identification, Volume I . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  15. Mathews, J.H. 1962. Firearms Identification, Volume II . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  16. Mathews, J.H. 1973. Firearms Identification, Volume III . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  17. Mogish, N.M. 1990. Full auto Uzi conversion. AFTE J 22 (2): 186-187.
  18. National Rifle Association. 1989. NRA Firearms Fact Book . 3rd Edition. Fairfax: National Rifle Association.
  19. Phillips, G.R. 1983. Ruger security six revolver for accidental discharge. AFTE J 15 (4): 56.
  20. Thompson, R.C. 1983. Firearms malfunction worksheets. AFTE J 15 (1): 100.
  21. Uri, B. 1993. Remote controlled device for safe discharge of dangerous firearms. AFTE J 25 (2):116-124.
  22. Wolslagel, P.F. 2001. Accidental discharge potential of Lorcin, Bryco, and related pistols. AFTE J 33 (1): 48-49.
  23. Zahn, M.S. 1981. Browning Hi Power automatic pistol: Another type of full automatic modification. AFTE J 13 (2): 24.

Module 09

  1. AFTE Criteria for Identification Committee. 1992. Theory of identification, range striae comparison reports and modified glossary definitions AFTE criteria for identification committee report. AFTE J 24 (2): 336-340.
  2. Al Khalifa, A.K. 1983. Headstamps with Arabic markings. AFTE J 15 (2): 64.
  3. Biasotti, A., and J. Murdock. 1984. Criteria for identification in firearms and toolmark identification. AFTE J 16 (4): 16-24.
  4. Biasotti, A.A, and J.E. Murdock. 1997. Firearms and toolmark identification: Legal issues and scientific status. In Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony , ed D.L. Faigman, D.H. Kay, M.J. Saks, and J. Sanders, 124 151. St Paul: West Publishing Co.
  5. Brackett, J. 1970. A study of idealized striated marks and their comparisons using models. J of Forensic Sci Soc . 10 (1): 27-56.
  6. Burrard, G. 1962. The Identification of Firearms and Forensic Ballistics . New York: A.S. Barnes & Co.
  7. Datig, Fred. 1963. Cartridges for Collectors . 4 vols. Los Angeles: Borden Publishing.
  8. Davis, J.E. 1958. Introduction to Tool Marks, Firearms and the Striagr . Springfield: Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd.
  9. Garland, P.V. 1974. Color code identification of small arms cartridges. AFTE J 6 (2): 27.
  10. Gunther, J.D., and C.O. Gunther. 1935. The Identification of Firearms . New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
  11. Hamby, J. 1974. Identification of projectiles. AFTE J 6 (5/6): 22.
  12. Hatcher, J. 1935. Textbook of Firearms Investigation, Identification and Evidence . Plantersville: Small-Arms Technical Publishing Co.
  13. Hatcher, J. 1947. Hatchers Notebook . Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co.
  14. Hatcher, J.S., F.J. Jury, and J. Weller. 1957. Firearms Investigation, Identification, and Evidence . Harrisburg: Stackpole Books.
  15. Heard, B. 1997. Handbook of Firearms and Ballistics - Examining and Interpreting Forensic Evidence . West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  16. Horn, W. 1962. Headstamps and Cartridge Identification Data . Burlington: Sheldon Press.
  17. Mathews, J.H. 1962. Firearms Identification, Volume I . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  18. Mathews, J.H. 1962. Firearms Identification, Volume II . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  19. Mathews, J.H. 1973. Firearms Identification, Volume III . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  20. Nichols, R. 2004. Firearm and toolmark identification: The scientific reliability and validity of the AFTE theory of identification discussed within the framework of a study of 10 consecutively manufactured extractors. AFTE J 36 (1): 67-88.
  21. Shem, R. and P. Striupaitis. 1983. Comparison of 501 consecutively fired bullets and cartridge cases from a .25 caliber Raven pistol. AFTE J 15 (3): 109-112.
  22. Smith, E. 2005. Cartridge case and bullet comparison validation study with firearms submitted in casework. AFTE J 37 (2): 130-135.
  23. Warniment, D. 2003. Brownsville investigation A historical cartridge case comparison. AFTE J 34 (4): 375.
  24. Welch, N.E. 1981. Matching a bullet to a cartridge case. AFTE J 13 (4): 79.

Module 10

  1. AFTE Criteria for Identification Committee. 1992. Theory of identification, range striae comparison reports and modified glossary definitions AFTE criteria for identification committee report. AFTE J 24 (2): 336-340.
  2. Biasotti, A., and J. Murdock. 1984. Criteria for identification in firearms and toolmark identification. AFTE J 16 (4): 16-24.
  3. Brackett, J. 1970. A Study of idealized striated marks and their comparisons using models. J of Forensic Sci Soc . 10 (1): 27-56.
  4. Burrard, G. 1962. The Identification of Firearms and Forensic Ballistics . New York: A.S. Barnes & Co.
  5. Cassidy, F.H. 1981. Nomograph for calculation of the number of lands and grooves. AFTE J 13 (4): 67.
  6. Davis, J.E. 1958. Introduction to Tool Marks, Firearms and the Striagr . Springfield: Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd.
  7. Freels, R.H. 1983. Comparison of a shotshell shot collar to a cut barrel. AFTE J 15 (3): 21.
  8. Gunther, J.D., and C.O. Gunther. 1935. The Identification of Firearms . New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
  9. Hall, E. 1983. Bullet markings from consecutively rifled Shilen DGA barrels. AFTE J 15 (1): 33-53.
  10. Hatcher, J. 1935. Textbook of Firearms Investigation, Identification and Evidence . Plantersville: Small-Arms Technical Publishing Co.
  11. Hatcher, J. 1947. Hatchers Notebook . Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co.
  12. Hatcher, J.S., F.J. Jury., and J. Weller. 1957. Firearms Investigation, Identification, and Evidence . Harrisburg: Stackpole Books.
  13. Heard, B. 1997. Handbook of Firearms and Ballistics - Examining and Interpreting Forensic Evidence . West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  14. Mathews, J.H. 1962. Firearms Identification, Volume I . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  15. Mathews, J.H. 1962. Firearms Identification, Volume II . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  16. Mathews, J.H. 1973. Firearms Identification, Volume III . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  17. Moran B. 1997. Manual and automated bullet and cartridge case comparison systems: A commentary. AFTE J 29 (1): 42-44.
  18. Shem, R., and P. Striupaitis. 1983. Comparison of 501 consecutively fired bullets and cartridge cases from a .25 caliber raven pistol. AFTE J 15 (3): 109-112.
  19. Silliman, J.R. 1977. Crime scene search: Evidence at the scene of a shotgun shooting. AFTE J 9 (2): 111.
  20. Stengel, R.F. 1987. Thoughts on bullet comparisons and no gun cases. AFTE J 19 (3): 306-307.

Module 11

  1. AFTE Criteria for Identification Committee. 1992. Theory of identification, range striae comparison reports and modified glossary definitions AFTE criteria for identification committee report. AFTE J 24 (2): 336-340.
  2. Biasotti, A. A. 1959. A statistical study of the individual characteristics of fired bullets. J of Forensic Sci 4 (1): 34-50.
  3. Biasotti, A., and J. Murdock. 1984. Criteria for identification in firearms and toolmark identification. AFTE J 16 (4): 16-24.
  4. Biasotti, A.A, and J.E. Murdock. 1997. Firearms and toolmark identification: Legal issues and scientific status. In Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony , ed D.L. Faigman, D.H. Kay, M.J. Saks, and J. Sanders, 124 151. St Paul: West Publishing Co.
  5. Brackett, J. 1970. A study of idealized striated marks and their comparisons using models. J of Forensic Sci Soc 10 (1): 27-56.
  6. Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals , Inc. 1993. 509 U.S. 579.
  7. Grove, C., G. Judd, and R. Horn. 1972. Examination of firing pin impressions by scanning electron microscopy. J of Forensic Sci 17 (4): 645-658.
  8. Hatcher, J. 1935. Textbook of Firearms Investigation, Identification and Evidence . Plantersville: Small-Arms Technical Publishing Co.
  9. Hatcher, J. 1947. Hatchers Notebook . Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co.
  10. Hatcher, J.S., F.J. Jury., and J. Weller. 1957. Firearms Investigation, Identification, and Evidence . Harrisburg: Stackpole Books.
  11. Heard, B. 1997. Handbook of Firearms and Ballistics - Examining and Interpreting Forensic Evidence . West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  12. Mathews, J.H. 1962. Firearms Identification, Volume I . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  13. Mathews, J.H. 1962. Firearms Identification, Volume II . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  14. Mathews, J.H. 1973. Firearms Identification, Volume III . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  15. Miller, J. 2000. An examination of two consecutively rifled barrels and a review of the literature. AFTE J 32 (3): 259-270.
  16. Miller, J. 2001. An examination of the application of the conservative criteria for identification of striated toolmarks using bullets fired from 10 consecutively rifled barrels. AFTE J . 33 (2): 125-132.
  17. Moran, B. 2001. The application of numerical criteria for identification in casework involving magazine marks and land impressions. AFTE J 33 (1): 41-46.
  18. Murdock, J. 1981. A general discussion of gun barrel individuality and an empirical assessment of the individuality of consecutively button rifled .22 caliber rifle barrels. AFTE J 13 (3): 84-111.
  19. Ogihara, Y., M. Kubota, M. Sanada, K. Fukuda, T. Uchiyama, and J. Hamby. 1983. Comparison of 5000 consecutively fired bullets and cartridge cases from a .45 caliber M1911A1 pistol. AFTE J 15 (3): 127-140.
  20. Shem, R., and P. Striupaitis. 1983. Comparison of 501 consecutively fired bullets and cartridge cases from a .25 caliber raven pistol. AFTE J 15 (3): 109-112.
  21. Tulleners, F., and J. Hamiel. 1999. Sub class characteristics of sequentially rifled 38 special S&W revolver barrels. AFTE J 31 (2): 117-122.
  22. Valdez, S. 1997. Bullet identification from HK USP polygonal barrels. AFTE J 29 (3): 307-309.
  23. Weber, P., and D. Scott. 2005. Applying firearm identification procedures in the analysis of percussion caps. AFTE J 37 (1): 34-44.
  24. Wright, D. 2003. Individuality and reproducibility of striae on plastic wad components fired from a sawed-off shotgun. AFTE J 35 (2): 161-166.

Module 12

  1. Allen, D.E. 1983. Effects of blood on gunshot and gunpowder residue. AFTE J 15 (2): 102.
  2. Bashinski, J.S, J.E. Davis, and C. Young. 1974. Detection of lead in gunshot residues on targets using the sodium rhodizonate test. AFTE J 6 (4): 5.
  3. Bonfanti, M, and A. Gallusser. 1995. Problems encountered in the detection of gunshot residues. AFTE J 27 (2): 105-122.
  4. Branch, D.M. 1982. Possible greiss test contamination. AFTE J 14 (3): 1.
  5. Brown, C.G. 1985. Detection of nitrites and lead in gunpowder residue patterns. AFTE J 17 (2): 118.
  6. Chaklos, D., and A. Davis. 2005. Visualization of gunpowder residue patterns using a digital infrared camera and optical filters. AFTE J 37 (2): 117-122.
  7. Davis, T.L. 1972. The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives . Las Vegas: Angriff Press.
  8. Denio, D.J. 1997. Forms to document procedure in case notes: Chemical tests for gunshot residues. AFTE J 29 (1): 61-65.
  9. Dillon, J.H. 1989. Graphical analysis of the shotgun/shotshell performance envelope in distance determination cases. AFTE J 21 (4): 593-594.
  10. Dillon, J.H. 1990. Modified griess test: A chemically specific chromophoric test for nitrite compounds in gunshot residues. AFTE J 22 (3): 243-250.
  11. Dillon, J.H. 1990. Sodium rhodizonate test: A chemically specific chromophoric test for lead in gunshot residues. AFTE J 22 (3): 251-256.
  12. Dillon, J.H. 1990. Protocol for gunshot residue examinations in muzzle-to-target distance determinations. AFTE J 22 (3): 257-274.
  13. Dillon, J.H. 1991. Protocol for shot pattern examinations in muzzle-to-target distance determinations. AFTE J 23 (1): 511-521.
  14. Dillon, J.H. 1991. Manufacture of conventional smokeless powder. AFTE J 23 (2): 682-688.
  15. Doyle, J.S. 1987. Griess test modification. AFTE J 19 (2): 165-168.
  16. Fiegl, F. 1966. Spot Tests in Organic Analysis . 7th Edition. New York: Elsevier Publishing Company.
  17. Fiegl, F. 1972. Spot Tests in Inorganic Analysis . 6th Edition. New York: Elsevier Publishing Company.
  18. Garrison, D.H. 1995. Field recording and reconstruction of angled shot pellet patterns. AFTE J 27 (3): 204-208.
  19. Haag, L. 1994. Gunshot residue testing of bloody garments. AFTE J 26 (2): 155-156.
  20. Haag, L. 2001. Method for improving the griess and sodium rhodizonate tests for GSR patterns on bloody garments. AFTE J 23 (3): 808-815.
  21. Haag, L. 2001. The sources of lead in gunshot residue. AFTE J 33 (3): 212-218.
  22. Haag, M.G. 1997. 2-Nitroso-1-naphthol versus dithiooxamide in trace copper detection at bullet impact sites. AFTE J 29 (2): 204-209.
  23. Hueske, E.E. 1994. Gunshot residue testing of blood stained garments. AFTE J 26 (1): 26-33.
  24. Lindman, D.A. 1989. Weathering time factor in GSR proximity determinations. AFTE J 21 (3): 500-502.
  25. Malikowski, S.G. 2003. Alternative modified griess test paper. AFTE J 35 (2): 243.
  26. Shem, R.J. 2001. A simplified griess and sodium rhodizonate test. AFTE J 33 (1): 37-39.

Module 13

  1. AFTE Criteria for Identification Committee. 1992. Theory of identification, range striae comparison reports and modified glossary definitions AFTE criteria for identification committee report. AFTE J 24 (2): 336-340.
  2. AFTE. 1998. Theory of identification as it relates to toolmarks. AFTE J 30 (1): 86.
  3. Biasotti, A., and J. Murdock. 1984. Criteria for identification in firearms and toolmark identification. AFTE J 16 (4): 16-24.
  4. Biasotti, A., and J.E. Murdock. 1997. Firearms and toolmark identification: Legal issues and scientific status. In Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony , ed D.L. Faigman, D.H. Kay, M.J. Saks, and J. Sanders, 124 151. St Paul: West Publishing Co.
  5. Brackett, J. 1970. A study of idealized striated marks and their comparisons using models. J of Forensic Sci Soc 10 (1): 27-56.
  6. Butcher, S., and D. Pugh. 1975. A study of marks made by bolt cutters. J of Forensic Sci Soc 15, (2): 115-126.
  7. Collins, R., and R.S. Stone. 2005. How unique are impressed toolmarks? An empirical study of 20 worn hammer faces. AFTE J 37 (4): 252-295.
  8. Davis, J.E. 1958. Introduction to Tool Marks, Firearms and the Striagraph . Springfield: Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd.
  9. Ernest, R. 1991. Toolmarks in cartilage revisited. AFTE J 23 (4): 958-959.
  10. Galan, J. 1986. Identification of a knife wound in bone. AFTE J 18 (4): 72-75.
  11. Hall, J. 1992. Consecutive cuts by bolt cutters and their effect on identification. AFTE J 24 (3): 260-272.
  12. Hatcher, J. 1935. Textbook of Firearms Investigation, Identification and Evidence . Plantersville: Small-Arms Technical Publishing Co.
  13. Hatcher, J. 1947. Hatchers Notebook . Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co.
  14. Hatcher, J.S, F.J. Jury, and J. Weller. 1957. Firearms Investigation, Identification, and Evidence . Harrisburg: Stackpole Books.
  15. Kockel, R. 1980. About the appearance of clues or marks from knife blades. AFTE J 12 (3): 16-28.
  16. Locke, R. 2006. Characteristics of knife cuts in tires. AFTE J 38 (1): 56-65.
  17. May, L. 1930. The identification of knives, tools, and instruments: A positive science. Am J of Police Sci 1 (3): 246-259.
  18. Miller, J., and M. McLean. 1998. Criteria for identification of toolmarks. AFTE J 30 (1): 15-61.
  19. Miller, J. 2000. Criteria for identification of toolmarks Part II. AFTE J 32 (2): 116-131.
  20. Miller, J., and G. Beach. 2005. Toolmarks: Examining the possibility of subclass characteristics. AFTE J 37 (4): 296-345.
  21. Moran, B. 2003. Photo documentation of toolmark identification An argument in support. AFTE J 35 (2): 174-189.
  22. Nichols, R. 2003. Consecutive matching striations (CMS): Its definition, study and application in the discipline of firearms and toolmark identification. AFTE J 35 (3): 298-306.
  23. Stone, R. 2003. How unique are impressed toolmarks? AFTE J 35 (4): 376-383.
  24. Thompson, E., and R. Wyant. 2003. Knife identification project (KIP). AFTE J 35 (4): 366-370.
  25. Tomasetti, K. 2002. Analysis of the essential aspects of striated toolmark examination and the methods for identification. AFTE J 34 (3): 289-301.
  26. Walsh, K., and G. Weavers. Jan March 2003. Toolmark Identification: Can We Determine a Criteria? INTERface Forensic Sci Soc News Letter 29
  27. Watson, D. 1979. The identification of toolmarks from consecutively manufactured knife blades in soft plastic. AFTE J 10 (3): 43-45.
Module 14
  1. Keierleber, M, and T. Bohan. 2005. Ten years after Daubert : The status of states. JForensic Sci 50 (5): 115463.
  2. Schmalleger, F, 1999. Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century , 5th ed. Lebanon: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Safety

  1. 29 CFR 1910. Subpart L. Fire Protection.
  2. 29 CFR 1910.1030. Bloodborne Pathogens.
  3. 29 CFR 1910.1450. Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories.
  4. Ball, P., and D. Mikko. 1992. Protective optics. AFTE J 24 (1): 80-81.
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/
  6. Dutton, G. 1997. Firearms safety in the laboratory. AFTE J 29 (1): 37-41.
  7. Geibel, J. May June 1992. Ammunition can be hazardous to your health (in more than the obvious way). Police and Security News p11.
  8. Martinez, A.M. August 1993. Lead poisoning. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin p1-4.
  9. National Rifle Association, Gun Safety Rules. http://www.nrahq.org/education/guide.asp
  10. Silverwater, H, A. Koffman, and A. Zamir. 2001. Cross-infection of infectious diseases as applied to forensic firearms examinations and the means to prevent it. AFTE J 33 (3): 227-232.
  11. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration. http://www.osha.gov/