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A systematic literature review of school climate in low and middle income countries

NCJ Number
International Journal of Educational Research Volume: 102 Dated: 2020
Date Published

Since there is a lack of research on how school climate may be associated with students’ socio-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), the current literature review involved five reviewers completing a two-stage review of 35 articles that met inclusion criteria for studies of school climate in LMICs.


The findings of these reviews indicated a lack of consensus in the research regarding what constitutes or how to measure school climate; however, consistent associations were found with socio-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Although findings suggested that school climate is associated with positive student outcomes in LMICs, additional work is needed to increase the rigor of school climate research and its impact in these settings. (publisher abstract modified)

Date Published: January 1, 2020