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Access to Transportation and Outcomes for Women on Probation and Parole

NCJ Number
Date Published
February 2014
118 pages
This study used a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design of transportation access and its impact on recidivism for 402 women on probation and parole.

The study found that the scope of transportation difficulties was extensive, based on women's reporting of low levels of individual and community-level transportation resources. The study found that the relationship between transportation access and recidivism was moderately strong; access to transportation lowered the odds of recidivism events and the time until these events occurred. In addition, the study determined that transportation access was especially important in impacting recidivism for women with particular criminogenic needs, i.e., women with antisocial friends, histories of child maltreatment, need for greater family support, and need for greater self-efficacy. The study also determined that women parolees and probationers experienced 1 to 10 types of transportation problems, such as difficulty arranging rides, using inadequate bus services, and depending on unreliable people for transportation assistance. In addition, women were found to use several resources not previously identified, such as using agency-provided bus tokens. Other strategies that apparently relieved transportation difficulties were planning in advance for appointments with supervising officers, building extensive support networks, making use of several transportation modes, and having an understanding and non-punitive supervising officer. . The study involved both quantitative and qualitative phases. 16 tables, 2 figures, and 54 references

Date Published: February 1, 2014