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The school to prison pipeline: quantitative evidence to guide school counselor advocacy

NCJ Number
Date Published

Since the school to prison pipeline begins with disciplinary incidents which result in suspensions, expulsions, and referrals to law enforcement, we analyzed 230,988 disciplinary infractions from one year in public K-12 schools in Virginia.


We found evidence that Black male and female students are overrepresented in initial infractions and overrepresentation worsens only at the more discretionary points of the school to prison pipeline. A three-pronged approach to school counselor advocacy for transformative change is detailed herein. (Publisher Abstract Provided)

Date Published: January 1, 2021