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The Relationship of School Climate With Out-of-School Suspensions

NCJ Number
Children and Youth Services Review Volume: 94 Dated: November 2018 Pages: 378-389
Date Published
November 2018
12 pages

This study tested the hypothesis that an authoritative school climate (ASC), characterized by strict but fair discipline and supportive teacher-student relationships, was associated with a lower likelihood of suspensions.


The use of out-of-school suspensions, particularly for Black students, is recognized as a serious concern, given the many negative consequences associated with being removed from school. The current study used logistic regression models to analyze cross-sectional, student-report survey data from a statewide sample of 75,081 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students from 310 middle schools. Results indicated that, after controlling for student and school characteristics, higher ASC was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving a suspension. The beneficial association of an ASC did not vary differentially by student race/ethnicity. (publisher abstract modified)

Date Published: November 1, 2018