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The Relationship of School Climate With Out-of-School Suspensions

NCJ Number
Children and Youth Services Review Volume: 94 Dated: 2018 Pages: 378-389
Date Published
12 pages

Since the use of out-of-school suspensions, particularly for Black students, is recognized as a serious concern, given the many negative consequences associated with being removed from school. this study tested the hypothesis that an authoritative school climate (ASC), characterized by strict but fair discipline and supportive teacher-student relationships, is associated with a lower likelihood of suspensions.


Logistic regression models were used to analyze cross-sectional, student-report survey data from a Virginia statewide sample of 75,081 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students from 310 middle schools. Results indicated that, after controlling for student and school characteristics, higher ASC was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving a suspension. The beneficial association of an ASC did not vary differentially by student race/ethnicity. 3 tables, 2 figures, and 100 references (publisher abstract modified)

Date Published: January 1, 2018