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Racial Animosity, Adversary Effect, and Hate Crime: Parsing Out Injuries in Intraracial, Interracial, and Race-Based Offenses

NCJ Number
253999
Date Published
2019
Length
27 pages
Author(s)
Rachael A. Powers; Kelly M. Socia
Agencies
NIJ-Sponsored
Annotation
Using the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this study compared injuries across intraracial, interracial, and bias-motivated offenses.
Abstract
Although most crime is intraracial, studies suggest that interracial victimization is more injurious. This may be especially true for racially motivated offenses; however, studies of hate crime have not disaggregated which racial dyads are associated with injury, and whether they are more injurious than interracial victimizations generally. Likewise, studies of interracial violence often assume a theoretical framework grounded in racial animosity, but cannot test motivation directly. The current study found differences across racial dyad and the presence of racial animosity; however, the results are largely driven by the race of the offender. Implications for racial animosity theory, adversary effect, and hate crime literatures are discussed. (publisher abstract modified)

Date Created: July 20, 2021