We developed an affordable, highly sensitive, and specific paper-based microfluidic platform for fast multiplexed detections of important biomarkers in various body fluids, including urine, saliva, serum, and whole blood.
The sensor array consisted of five individual sensing channels with various functionalities that only required a micro liter-sized sample, which was equally split into aliquots by the built-in paper microfluidics. We achieved the individual functionalizations of various bioreceptors by employing the use of wax barriers and ‘paper bridges’ in an easy and low-cost manner. Pyrene carboxylic acid-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (PCA/SWNTs) were deposited by quantitative inkjet printing with an optimal 3-dimensional semiconductor density on a paper substrate. Multiple antibodies were immobilized onto the SWNTs surface for highly sensitive and specific field-effect transistor (FET)/chemiresistor (CR) biosensors. We explored the optimal sensing conditions for the paper-based CR biosensor to achieve high sensitivities and specificities towards the target biomarker proteins (human serum albumin (HSA) and human immunoglobulin G (HIgG)) and achieved an ultralow detectable concentration of HSA and HIgG at 1.5 pM. Besides, origami folding was employed to simplify the fabrication process further. The sensing platform described in this work was cost-effective, semi-automated, and user-friendly. It demonstrated the capability of having multiple sensing functions in one paper-based microfluidic sensing platform. It envisioned the potential of a point-of-care device with full-analysis for practical diagnostics in an ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid and robust, Equipment-free and Deliverable to end-users) fashion for a quick test of targets of interest. (Publisher Abstract Provided)