This study reviewed scientific literature from the past two decades on the various factors that affect the deposition, persistence, and collection of organic and inorganic gunshot residue (OGSR and IGSR, respectively).
Market changes in the manufacture of modern ammunition have affected typical elemental composition and morphology of particles, along with complex transfer and persistence mechanisms. This has prompted the forensic community to investigate means for a more comprehensive approach that incorporates IGSR and OGSR detection. Once collected, inorganic components are more persistent over time than OGSR. Conversely, exogenous compounds that mimic OGSR markers are less prevalent in the environment than IGSR-like elements. As a result, the combined detection of IGSR and OGSR is expected to decrease the occurrence of false positives and false negatives and bring superior confidence in the interpretation of results. This review also compiled information on over 180 primary IGSR and OGSR components reported in the literature for modern ammunition (standard and non-toxic) and their respective analyses. Also, this review offers a discussion of the capabilities and limitations of novel methods and future opportunities to adopt changes in the management of forensic investigations to improve the versatility, reliability, and response time in the discipline. (publisher abstract modified)
- Admitting to uncertainty in the LR
- The Application of Magnetic Bead Hybridization for the Recovery and STR Amplification of Degraded and Inhibited Forensic DNA
- Comparison of the Patterns and Degrees of Sexual Dimorphism Among Crania From Late 19th to Early 20th Century West Africans, African Americans, and European Americans