One of the studies, the Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study, was a longitudinal study (10 years) that focused on the character and impact of teen and young adult relationships as an influence on personal development in general and problematic outcomes, teen dating violence in particular. This study found that issues of power and control over a partner, such that the partner behaves in ways that satisfy the dominant partner, is a primary variable in the risk for violence. Such controlling behavior can be modified over time, however, in order to have more satisfying dating relationships. This pattern was prevalent among the study sample, such that only a small percentage continued to perpetrate dating violence into young adulthood. The second study reported concerns results from the first few years of the Dating It Safe Study. The presenter focuses on psychological violence and cyber violence linked to dating relationships. The factors discussed in such violence are witnessing family violence and substance use, as well as gender issues related to these factors. Jealousy related to low self-efficacy is examined as a primary factor in abusive relationships; how this may change over time is also considered.