U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government, Department of Justice.

Shot-to-Shot Variation in Gunshot Acoustics Experiments

NCJ Number
Date Published
June 2019
8 pages

This article describes a controlled experiment comparing ten repeated shots from several common handguns and rifles.


Audio forensic examinations may involve recordings containing gunshot sounds. Forensic questions may include determining the number of shots, what firearms were involved, the position and orientation of the firearms, and similar queries of importance to the investigation. A common question is whether a sequence of shots were attributable to a single gun fired repeatedly, or whether the sounds could possibly come from two or more different guns fired in succession. (Publisher abstract provided)


Date Published: June 1, 2019