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Results of the 3D Virtual Comparison Microscopy Error Rate (VCMER) Study for firearm forensics

NCJ Number
Journal of Forensic Sciences Volume: 66 Issue: 2 Dated: 2021 Pages: 557-570
Date Published
14 pages

This paper describes a Virtual Comparison Microscopy (VCM) error rate and validation study involving 107 participants.



The digital examination of scanned or measured 3D surface topography is referred to as Virtual Comparison Microscopy (VCM). Within the discipline of firearm and toolmark examination, VCM enables review and comparison of microscopic toolmarks on fired ammunition components. In the coming years, this technique may supplement and potentially replace the light comparison microscope as the primary instrument used for firearm and toolmark examination. The current study included 40 test sets of fired cartridge cases from firearms with a variety of makes, models, and calibers. Participants used commercially available VCM software which allowed digital data distribution, specimen visualization, and submission of conclusions. The software also enabled participants to annotate areas of similarity and dissimilarity to support their conclusions. The primary cohort of 76 qualified United States and Canadian examiners who completed the study had an overall false-positive error rate of 3 errors from 693 comparisons (0.43 percent) and a false-negative error rate of 0 errors from 491 comparisons (0.0 percent). This accuracy is supplemented by the participant's provided surface annotations, which provide insight into the cause of errors and the overall consistency across the independent examinations conducted in the study. The ability to obtain highly accurate conclusions on test fires from a wide range of firearms supports the hypothesis that VCM is a useful tool within the crime laboratory. (publisher abstract modified)

Date Published: January 1, 2021