NIJ's urban initiatives have included Operation Weed and Seed, market drug analyses, Drug Use Forecasting, Security by Design, crime in public housing, and community responses to drug abuse. NIJ has been a leader in researching and evaluating the effectiveness of the community policing approach as it has developed over the past ten years. The institute has been active in law enforcement efforts taken against gangs; this report discusses patterns of gang behavior and gang migration, prosecution strategies, and the task force approach to combating gang influence. Elements in the campaign to prevent and control drug use include identifying drug- involved offenders, developing drug-testing technologies, and providing treatment facilities in criminal justice settings. This report also discusses the issues of police and violence, prosecution and adjudication, corrections and intermediate sanctions, white collar and organized crime, research on criminal behavior, and victims of crime. In terms of program evaluation, NIJ has assessed strategies to combat drugs and violent crime, held a conference on evaluating drug control initiatives, and evaluated training and technical assistance. Topics in science and technology examined here include forensic science, new technological tools, technology assessment programs, and technology in policing. The final section lists NIJ publications and resource materials.