This article discusses NIJ’s new grant application peer review process. The 2010 evaluation of the NIJ by the National Research Council (NRC) found that NIJ needs to do a better job in its research program development and planning and to institute more rigorous processes and policies related to its research. Following this recommendation, in fiscal year 2012 NIJ will establish five scientific review panels in four topic categories: criminal justice systems, violence and victimization, forensics (two panels), and science and technology. The panels will consist of 12 scientists and 6 practitioners to review the research proposals. Steps in the review process will include: 1) verification by NIJ staff that the application meets the basic minimum requirements as stated in the solicitation; 2) assessment by 3 members of the scientific review panel to determine the application’s technical merits and comment on their assessment; 3) an opportunity for all 18 members of the scientific review panel to review every application and participate in the consensus review; and 4) based on the results of the scientific review panel, NIJ staff will make recommendations to the NIJ director regarding each application.