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Immigrant Generation, School Procedural Justice, and Educational Attainment

NCJ Number
Sociological Inquiry Dated: 2019
Date Published

This study used data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 and incorporated multilevel analysis to examine how school punishment, justice, and fairness influenced the educational attainment of children of immigrants.


There is much educational concern about the disproportionate punishment of racial/ethnic minority students within U.S. public schools. Research evidence indicates that school punishment exacerbates the already-known racial/ethnic inequalities within the educational system. What remains uncertain is if and how school punishment, justice, and fairness are moderating educational attainment for the children of immigrants. In addressing this issue, the current study used straight-line and segmented assimilation frameworks to evaluate variation in these effects by immigrant generation. Findings suggest that improved school procedural justice and fairness could improve educational attainment, as well as ameliorate the detrimental impact of school punishment; however, these patterns were segmented by immigrant generation and race/ethnicity. (publisher abstract modified)

Date Published: January 1, 2019