This technical report presents the results of a funded project to develop DNA markers on the Y chromosome for the purpose of forensic applications.
The past 10 years have witnessed a vast increase in the criminal justice use and reliance on forensic DNA analysis, particularly in sexual assault cases. Work under this National Institute of Justice funded grant included: (1) the development of a DNA typing system targeting the male-specific portion of the human genome; (2) the identification of a set of informative non-recombining Y chromosome (NRY) markers robust enough for forensic analysis; (3) the development of detailed protocols for (polymerase chain reaction) PCR-based multiplex genotyping kits; and (4) the development of a database of Y chromosome markers in the United States population. The investigators identified and characterized 20 unique short tandem repeats (STRs) on the NRY that were robust enough for forensic analysis and developed multiplex protocols to amplify 41 Y-STRs in 5 PCR reactions. A database was created with the entire United States Y-STR data and is available for online searches. Further analysis suggested that the creation of separate African-American, European-American, Hispanic-American, and Asian-American databases would improve effectiveness. There is also support for the creation of separate databases for different Native American groups. The report presents empirical tests of association between Y chromosome and autosomal markers and offers a theoretical framework for determining a joint match probability. Future research should focus on the construction of appropriate Y-STR databases of Native American populations. Publications, references, tables, figures, appendixes
Date Published: January 1, 2005