Offenders are exposed to violence at higher rates than the general population. Yet little is known about whether exposure to violence affects offenders’ adjustment to incarceration. Using a nationally representative sample of inmates housed in secure confinement facilities, the authors examine the relative effects of exposure to different types of violence prior to incarceration (e.g., physical assault, sexual assault, child abuse) on inmate maladjustment. Results indicate that exposure to violence prior to incarceration influences individuals’ odds of maladjustment during imprisonment, and that abuse as a child and physical victimization by a nonstranger as an adult are particularly robust predictors of maladjustment. Implications of these findings for future research and correctional practice are discussed. Abstract published by arrangement with Sage Journals.