U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government, Department of Justice.

Effective Methods to Access Exposure to Violence and Victimization Among American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: The Tribal Youth Victimization Study

NCJ Number
Date Published
December 2019
142 pages

Since there is limited information on the nature and scope of violence and victimization among American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) youth, this project funded by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) developed, implemented, and pilot-tested a survey and protocol for collecting data to indicate the prevalence of violence and victimization among AI and AN youth and young adults.


The intent of this effort is to inform a future national effort to collect and analyze such data. The primary study components were 1) the development and testing of a self-report survey instrument, 2) the assessment of modes of survey implementation, and 3) the testing of options for survey provision by considering ethical and practical issues for AI and AN youth who participate in the survey. The survey items were developed based on a literature review and stakeholder input. Cognitive testing (CT) of the survey involved 33 participants ages 12-20 at two urban sites and one reservation, and pilot testing (PT) included 359 participants ages 13-20 at two urban sites and one reservation. The study concluded that the survey instrument and protocol were effective in collecting self-report data on the prevalence of incidents of violence and victimization among survey respondents. Factor analyses supported the decisions and inclusions of specific measures, with only a few question deletions or  question clarifications. The reliability assessment indicated that all tested domains met moderate to high reliability, except the “perpetrating sexual violence,” due to a small number of positive responses. The average time for survey completion was 28 minutes. The end product will help fill critical knowledge gaps on this issue and permit comparisons with violence and victimization experienced by other U.S. populations of youth and young adults and among AI and AN communities on a future national scale.

Date Published: December 1, 2019