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Which Latinos Experience Bias Victimization? An Examination of Acculturation, Immigrant Status, and Socio-economic Status

NCJ Number
Journal of Interpersonal Violence Volume: 38 Issue: 17-18 Dated: 2023 Pages: 9898–9922
Date Published
25 pages

This study examines the experience of bias victimization among Latinos and the factors associated with this experience.


This study examined factors that could be associated with bias victimization according to intergroup threat theory, namely socioeconomic status (SES), acculturation (Anglo orientation and Latino orientation), immigrant status, and their interactions. Self-identified Latino participants (N = 910) from three cities in the United States were queried about experiences with bias victimization, specifically hate crime and noncriminal bias victimization. Findings revealed that levels of bias victimization, hate crime, and noncriminal bias victimization were associated with SES, Anglo orientation, immigrant status, and their interactions, although in some unpredicted ways. Interactions among key variables helped clarify the roles of these factors in concert on bias victimization. The hate crimes against U.S.-born Latinos and the victimization risk associated with increasing Anglo orientations among immigrants contradicts predictions of intergroup threat theory. More nuanced analyses of social locations are needed to examine bias victimization. (Published Abstract Provided)

Date Published: January 1, 2023