Hawaii's HOPE is a probation program that provides immediate, mandated, graduated sanctions for each failed drug test. The initial HOPE evaluation, conducted in part by NIJ, found significant reductions in both failed drug tests and probationers' missed appointments with probation officers. Currently, NIJ is engaged in two HOPE projects. One is the HOPE demonstration field experiment, which involves the replication of the HOPE program in four sites on the U.S. mainland. The second HOPE-related NIJ project is a 5-year follow-up evaluation of the original HOPE probation program, so as to determine whether the initial findings of the 2007 evaluation have had a lasting impact. Regarding the four evaluation sites on the mainland, the process evaluation determined that although there are variations among the four programs, all sites have retained the HOPE practice of applying swift and certain sanctions for each failed drug test, with sanctions increasing for each successive failure. In addition to the process evaluation, outcome and cost evaluations will be conducted for each site.