This study compared DNA yields and STR results obtained from two established current ancient DNA (aDNA) and forensic DNA extraction protocols by sampling multiple skeletal elements recovered from victims (n = 23) involved in fire-related incidents.
Thermal degeneration of the DNA molecule presents a special challenge to medico-legal investigations, since low DNA yields, fragmented DNA molecules, and damaged nucleotide bases hinder accurate STR genotyping. Consequently, fragments of severely burned human remains are often not amenable to standard DNA recovery; however, current ancient DNA (aDNA) extraction methods have proven highly effective at obtaining ultrashort DNA fragments (∼50 bp) from degraded palaeontological and archaeological specimens. In the current study, DNA yields and STR results suggest an inverse correlation between DNA yield and STR quality and increasing temperature. Despite the rapid thermal destruction of DNA at high temperatures, the study produced higher quality full and partial STR profiles using the aDNA extraction protocol across all burn categories than the forensic total bone demineralization extraction method. This analysis suggests adopting aDNA extraction methods as an alternative to current forensic practices to improve DNA yields from challenging human remains. (publisher abstract modified)