We present a novel circuit implementation for on-chip real-time resonance frequency measurement and feedback control based on monitoring the current drawn from the amplifier used to stimulate the piezo transducer, since the need for high measurement sensitivity in this mode does not lower the power available for stimulation of the transducer; and the enhanced level of control of acoustic trapping utilizing this current mode is validated for various localized channel perturbations, including drift, wash steps, and buffer swaps, as well as for selective sperm cell trapping from a heterogeneous sample that includes lysed epithelial cells.
The utilization of bulk acoustic waves from a piezoelectric transducer for selective particle trapping under flow in a microchannel is limited by the high sensitivity of the resonance frequency to tolerances in device geometry, drift during trapping, and variations in the local flow or sample conditions in each channel. This is addressed by detecting the resonance condition based on the impedance minimum obtained by monitoring the amplitude of the stimulation voltage across the piezo transducer and utilizing real-time feedback to control the stimulation frequency. However, this requires an overlap in the frequency bandwidth of the detection and the stimulation system and is also limited by the decline in the acoustic trapping power when the stimulation and resonance frequency measurement are conducted simultaneously. (Publisher Abstract)
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