Recently, the authors of this article proposed specific X-chromosomal exact test procedures for bi-allelic variants that include the hemizygous males, as well as autosomal tests that consider gender; and in the current study, they present the extension of the previous work for variants with multiple alleles.
Statistical tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are important elementary tools in genetic data analysis. X-chromosomal variants have long been tested by applying autosomal test procedures to females only, and gender is usually not considered when testing autosomal variants for equilibrium. In the current project, a full enumeration algorithm was used for the exact calculations of tri-allelic variants. For variants with many alternate alleles, the authors used a permutation test. Some empirical examples with data from the 1,000 genomes project are discussed. (publisher abstract modified)