After presenting an overview of geographic technologies, theories, and principles, the article on applied geography for the study of crime and public safety discusses the use of computer software for crime mapping, the use of applied geography to understand crime and public safety, problem-oriented policing, and the creation of policy to prevent crime. The second article first defines "hot spots" ("areas with a greater than average number of criminal or disorder events or higher than average risk of victimization"), and then describes tools police can use to identify and analyze hot spots, followed by a discussion of theories for countering hot-spot crime. The third article describes the features and uses of Environmental Systems Research Institute's ModelBuilder, a component of geographic-information-system (GIS) software called ArcMap, which allows for "drag-and-drop" development of complex geoprocessing tasks. The article on the new California University of Pennsylvania's Crime Mapping Center notes that it is equipped with GIS technology that enables students to complete weekly and monthly crime-mapping reports for rural police departments. It is staffed by student volunteers interested in applying what they learn in the classroom to real problems facing police.