This article presents a fast, accurate estimation method for multivariate Hawkes self-exciting point processes widely used in seismology, criminology, finance, and other areas.
Fluctuating asymmetry is often used as an indicator of developmental instability and is proposed as a signal of genetic quality. The display of prominent masculine phenotypic features, which are a direct result of high androgen levels, is also believed to be a sign of genetic quality, as these hormones may act as immunosuppressants. Fluctuating asymmetry and masculinity are therefore expected to covary; however, there is lack of strong evidence in the literature regarding this hypothesis. The current study found no correlation between fluctuating asymmetry and masculinity in men; however, a weak but significant correlation was found between average fluctuating asymmetry and masculinity in women, in which feminine faces had higher levels of fluctuating asymmetry on average. This correlation could possibly point to genetic quality as an underlying mechanism for both asymmetry and masculinity; however, it might also be driven by other fitness or life history traits, such as fertility. The study concludes that its findings challenge the prevalent concept in recent literature that fluctuating asymmetry and masculinity should be (more strongly) correlated in men. Future studies should possibly focus more on the evolutionary relevance of the observed correlation in women. (publisher abstract modified)
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