The nation’s nearly 7,000 correctional facilities face similar potential hazards and vulnerabilities when protecting the public, staff, and inmates. To help recognize and counter these threats, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) convened a working group of 17 experts from across the country. This article details the prioritized needs and opportunities for improvement that the panel identified. These recommendations will help guide NIJ’s research agenda and advance the national discourse on correctional security issues. RAND and University of Denver researchers organized and managed the correctional security workshop, attended by institution administrators, federal agency representatives, and security professionals, as part of NIJ’s Priority Criminal Justice Needs Initiative.