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Confronting Online Extremism: The Effect of Self-Help, Collective Efficacy, and Guardianship on Being a Target for Hate Speech

NCJ Number
253172
Date Published
2017
Length
19 pages
Author(s)
Matthew Costello; James Hawdon; Thomas N. Ratliff
Agencies
NIJ-Sponsored
Publication Type
Research (Applied/Empirical), Report (Study/Research), Report (Grant Sponsored), Program/Project Description
Grant Number(s)
2014-ZA-BX-0014
Annotation
In determining who is likely to be a target of online hate and extremism, this study used an online survey (N = 963) of youth and young adults recruited from a demographically balanced sample of Americans.
Abstract
Adapting routine activity theory, the study distinguished between actor-initiated social control (i.e., self-help), other-initiated social control (i.e., collective efficacy), and guardianship and show how self-help is positively related to the likelihood of being targeted by hate. The findings highlight how online exposure to hate materials, target suitability, and enacting social control online all influence being the target of hate. Using social networking sites and encountering hate material online have a particularly strong relationship with being targeted with victim suitability (e.g., discussing private matters online and participating in hate online) and confronting hate also influences the likelihood of being the target of hate speech. (publisher abstract online)
Date Created: July 20, 2021