Findings and methodology are presented for an evaluation of the impact of an early childhood, family-centered, school-based intervention on children's kindergarten academic achievement.
The evaluation used a cluster (school) randomized controlled trial with assessments from pre-kindergarten (pre-k) entry through the end of kindergarten. The setting was 10 public elementary schools with 26 pre-k classes in two school districts in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods serving a largely Black, low-income population. Participants were 1,050 Black and Latino, low-income children (age 4; 88 percent of pre-k population) enrolled in 10 schools over 4 years. Universal intervention aimed to promote self-regulation and early learning by strengthening positive behavior support and effective behavior management at home and school while increasing parent involvement in education. Intervention included after-school group sessions for families of pre-k students (13 2-hour sessions; co-led by pre-k teachers) and professional development for pre-k and kindergarten teachers. The outcome measures were standardized test scores of kindergarten-level reading, writing, and math achievement by independent evaluators masked to intervention condition (primary outcome) and developmental trajectories of teacher-rated academic performance from pre-k through kindergarten (secondary outcome). The evaluation found that relative to children in control schools, children in intervention schools had higher kindergarten achievement test scores (Cohen's d = 0.18, mean difference = 2.64, SE = 0.90, P = .03) and higher teacher-rated academic performance (Cohen's d = 0.25, mean difference = 5.65, SE = 2.34, P = .01). The evaluation concludes that early childhood population-level intervention that enhances both home and school environments shows promise in advancing academic achievement among minority children from disadvantaged, urban neighborhoods. 3 tables, 2 figures, and 54 references (publisher abstract modified)