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Adapting the multilevel model for estimation of the reliable change index (RCI) with multiple timepoints and multiple sources of error

NCJ Number
International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Volume: 31 Issue: 2 Dated: February 7, 2022
Date Published
February 2022

This research article examines the Reliable Change Index (RCI) as one of the primary tools in the assessment of individual-level patients.


Recent efforts to optimize the RCI have revolved around three issues: (a) extending the RCI beyond two timepoints, (b) estimating the RCI using scale scores from item response theory or factor analysis and (c) estimation of person- and time-specific standard errors of measurement. The authors present an adaptation of a two-stage procedure, a measurement error-corrected multilevel model, as a tool for RCI estimation (with accompanying Statistical Analysis System syntax). Using DASS-21 data from a community-based mental health center (N = 379), The authors illustrate the potential for the model as unifying framework for simultaneously addressing all three limitations in modeling individual-level RCI estimates. Compared to the optimal-fitting RCI model (moderated nonlinear factor analysis scoring with measurement error correction), an RCI model that uses DASS-21 total scores produced errors in RCI inferences in 50.8% of patients; this was largely driven by overestimation of the proportion of patients with statistically significant improvement. (Publisher abstract provided)


Date Published: February 1, 2022