U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government, Department of Justice.

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Responses to Sexual Violence: Effectiveness of SANE/SART Programs

Date Published
May 29, 2012

On this page find:

Effectiveness of SANE/SART

NIJ studies have found that Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs and multidisciplinary Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART): [1], [2]

  • Enhance the quality of health care for women who have been sexually assaulted.
  • Improve the quality of forensic evidence.
  • Increase law enforcement's ability to collect information, file charges and refer to prosecution.
  • Increased prosecution rates over time.

The International Association of Forensic Nurse's database shows programs operating throughout the United States and its territories. Most programs are based in hospitals and others are located in community settings.

Evaluating SANE Programs

NIJ supported the creation of a Practitioner Toolkit for Evaluating the Work of SANE Programs (pdf, 145 pages). The goal of this Toolkit is to assist SANE program staff in evaluating how their program affects the reporting, investigation and prosecution of sexual assault cases in their community. This Toolkit was developed as part of a large research study on the work of SANEs in the criminal justice system. [3] The lessons learned from that project helped inform the development of this Toolkit, but by no means are legal outcomes the only or best way to evaluate the success of SANE programs. 

About This Article

The research described in this article was funded by NIJ under grants 2005-WG-BX-0003, awarded to Michigan State University, and 98-WT-VX-0027, awarded to the Albuquerque SANE Collaborative. 

This  article is based on the grantee reports "Impact Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program (pdf, 129 pages)" and "Step-by-Step Practitioner Toolkit for Evaluating the Work of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs in the Criminal Justice System" (pdf, 145 pages).

National Institute of Justice, "Responses to Sexual Violence: Effectiveness of SANE/SART Programs," May 29, 2012, nij.ojp.gov:
Date Created: May 29, 2012