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Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation Conceptual Framework


The Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation (MADCE) Conceptual Framework has six components:

  1. Target Population Severity
  2. Drug Court Practices
  3. Offender Perceptions
  4. In-Program Behavior
  5. Post-Program Outcomes
  6. Drug Court Context

Conceptual Framework

  1. Target Population Severity
    • Drug Use
      • Addiction severity
      • Drugs of abuse
      • Drug use history
    • Criminality
      • Felony/misdemeanor charge
      • Recidivism risk — prior arrests/convictions
      • Opportunity to offend (street days)
    • Other Risk Factors
      • Health problems
      • Mental health problems
      • Employment problems
      • Housing instability
      • Family conflict
      • Family support
      • Close ties to drug users
      • Close ties to lawbreakers
    • Demographics
      • Age, gender, race
      • Marital status, children
      • Education, income
  2. Drug Court Practices
    • Use of Legal Pressure
      • Severity of consequences for failure
    • Individual Court Experiences
      • Drug court participation
      • Drug testing requirements, practices
      • Sanctions rules, practices
      • Supervision requirements/practices
      • Prosecution involvement
      • Interactions with judge and supervising officers
      • Court appearances
    • Drug Court Practices
      • Leverage
      • Program intensity
      • Predictability
      • Rehabilitation focus
      • Timeliness of intervention
      • Admission requirements
      • Completion requirements
    • Drug Treatment
      • Treatment history
      • Days of treatment by type
      • Treatment requirements
      • Support services by type — offered and used
  3. Offender Perceptions
    • Perceived Legal Pressure
      • Severity and likelihood of termination and alternative sentence
    • Motivations
      • Readiness to change stage
    • Understanding of Rules
      • Received expected sanctions and rewards
      • Understood expected behavior
    • Perceived Risk of Sanctions and Rewards
      • General deterrence
      • Certainty/severity of sanctions
      • Certainty and value of rewards
    • Perceptions of Court Fairness
      • Procedural justice
      • Distributive justice
      • Personal involvement of judge and supervising officer
  4. In-Program Behavior
    • Compliance With Drug Intervention
      • Likelihood of entry
      • Number and type of drug test violations
      • Percentage of treatment days attended
      • Treatment duration and retention
      • Treatment graduation and termination
    • Compliance with Supervision
      • Court FTAs — percentage of scheduled
      • Case management FTAs — percentage of scheduled
      • Violations of supervision requirements
      • Drug court graduation
  5. Post-Program Outcomes
    • Reduced Drug Use
      • Any, type, and frequency of self-reported use post-program
      • Results of saliva test
    • Reduced Recidivism
      • Any, type, and frequency of self-reported offending post-program
      • Any, type, and number of arrests/convictions post-program
      • Decrease in post-intervention incarceration
    • Improved Functioning
      • Reduction in health and mental health problems
      • Increase in likelihood and days of employment
      • Gains in economic self-sufficiency
      • Reductions in family problems
    • Post-Program Use of Services
      • Type and amount of drug treatment/aftercare
      • Type and amount of other support services
  6. Drug Court Context
    • Community Setting
      • Demographics
      • Urbanicity
      • Drug arrest rate
      • Poverty/economics
    • Drug Laws
      • Mandatory sentences
      • Drug law severity
    • Court Characteristics
      • Court size
      • Court resources