This introductory chapter for CrimeStat IV - a spatial statistics package that can analyze crime incident location data - addresses the uses of spatial statistics in crime analysis, the CrimeStat IV spatial statistics program (input and output); statistical routines; program requirements; program installation; step-by-step instructions; options; short applications; online help; and references.
In the discussion of the uses of spatial statistics in crime analysis, the chapter notes that although some crime-location analyses can be conducted with geographic information systems (GIS) queries, quantification can provide a more precise identification and the ability to compare various types of incidents; e.g., an analyst wishing to examine patterns of street robberies over time will need indices that document how the robberies may have shifted; and for a neighborhood with an apparent sudden increase in auto thefts, there must be a quantitative standard that defines the "typical" level of auto thefts. In describing CrimeStat IV, this introductory chapter states that it is "designed to provide statistical summaries and models of crime-incident data." Crime analysts and researchers are given a wide range of spatial statistical procedures that can be linked to a GIS. CrimeStat IV includes statistics routines for both statistical description and modeling. These are divided into 6 general statistical categories with more than 80 individual routines. This chapter outlines the data setup, spatial description, "hot spot" analysis, spatial modeling I, spatial modeling II, and crime travel demand. The chapter's section on program requirements addresses the required hardware and operating system, available RAM limits, multi-threading, and installation. The chapter advises that the complete manual provides step-by-step instructions on how CrimeStat IV can be used by a crime-mapping/analysis unit within a police department. 8 references