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Gender and community supervision: Examining differences in violations, sanctions, and recidivism outcomes

NCJ Number
Crime & Delinquency Volume: 68 Issue: 2 Dated: December 22, 2020
Date Published
December 2020

Although correctional scholarship emphasizes the importance of addressing dynamic risk factors in changing behavior, a debate continues on the role of gendered effects relating to such factors and supervision strategies, so the current study advances the debate and approach to violators by examining factors that reduce recidivism among technical violators.


Using a large purposive sample of people on supervision, this study assesses differences between men and women in violating behavior, the sanctions used, and subsequent responses. To isolate effects of gender, the authors employ propensity score modeling coupled with a doubly robust design. Findings suggest that while some gendered differences exist, effect sizes are generally small and suggest responses to violators may be best focused on dynamic factors generally, rather than gender specific. (Publisher abstract provided)

Date Published: December 1, 2020