Beginning in the 1960's, Americans shifted from a passive dependence on and submission to the expertise of professionals in government and other social institutions to an increased trust in their own judgments and actions regarding social policy and national destiny. In criminal justice, citizen initiatives are reflected in an emphasis on victim advocacy, the sentencing of offenders according to crime severity and criminal histories, and community crime prevention programs. NIJ research has addressed these citizen initiatives by evaluating the effectiveness of sentencing guidelines and mandatory sentencing in providing greater sentencing consistency and by exploring the deterrent effect of more certain and severe punishment. Other NIJ research is exploring the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs, the benefits of various types of victim participation in case processing, and how to improve 'Crime Stopper' and 'Neighborhood Watch' community crime prevention programs. Future NIJ research includes a major initiative to help criminal justice administrators make cost-effective resource allocations.