NIJ seeks proposals for funding to examine indigent criminal defense services, policies, and practices. This includes services provided by any of the following: State-funded, county-funded, city-funded, or tribal public defender's offices; contract indigent defense lawyers; court-appointed counsel for indigent defendants; and/or, pro bono services provided by criminal defense attorneys. These services can be at the pretrial, trial, post-conviction, and/or appellate stages and involve either juvenile and/or adult defendants. Applicants are encouraged to consider research involving either (1) access to counsel and waiver of counsel by juveniles and/or adults, or (2) the effectiveness of other defense team members in indigent defense cases. However, other strong research proposals will be considered as well.