Description of original award (Fiscal Year 2017, $591,895)
As submitted by the proposer:
The project is focused on the detailed measurements of liquid blood atomization and breakup processes to improve the predictive capabilities of violent trauma blood-letting events. Three-dimensional measurements of the liquid blood breakup mechanisms will be studied through the use of holographic imaging. These techniques will be applied at ultra-high rates to improve the current databases of blood atomization studies by 1,000-fold, and thereby fully resolve the blood atomization dynamics in time.
The breakup dynamics of liquid blood resulting from traumatic blunt impact wounds and gunshot wounds are complicated to predict and model due to the interplay between the impact mechanism, the fluid dynamic breakup, and the large distances over which typical blood stain patterns are generated. The 3D measurements of blood atomization in blunt impact and gunshot impact will span a range of relevant timescales in order to elucidate the mechanisms of blood breakup and atomization. The detailed measurements of blood drop atomization will advance the state-of-the-art by providing time-resolved three-dimensional morphology that will allow direct comparison with fluid dynamic models to be developed under this effort.
The effort will result in open-access datasets of experimental trajectory results for blood drop formation under blunt force impact and bullet impact. Those datasets will be useful for training practitioners and for testing fluid dynamic models of blood atomization. The coupled detailed three-dimensional measurements of blood atomization processes and validated fluid dynamic models will provide predictive capabilities of benefit to the broad community of forensic blood spatter pattern analysis.
Specifically, this research will allow prediction of the trajectories of backspatter accounting for the counteracting effect of muzzle gases, which have been relevant to famous BPA court cases. Also, the new ability to directly compare fluid dynamic atomization models with a public database of high resolution atomization data will allow to measure the uncertainty of current and future atomization models for BPA and pave the way for BPA evidence to meet current court-requested so-called Daubert standard of evidence.
Note: This project contains a research and/or development component, as defined in applicable law, and complies with Part 200 Uniform Requirements - 2 CFR 200.210(a)(14).