A review of the implementation and outcomes of adult drug courts shows that drug courts' retention rates exceed those for the general treatment population (generally, 10-30 percent of participants are retained after 1 year; whereas, for adult drug courts, the national average for participant retention is 60 percent after 1 year; the national average for graduation rates is 50 percent. Regarding recidivism, adult drug courts generally reduce recidivism of participants compared with conventional prosecution. Recidivism impacts of drug courts are presented for New York State compared to a drug-offender group that underwent conventional prosecution. Regarding the cost-benefit impacts of drug courts, studies consistently show that adult drug courts produce net savings. Features of drug court that are most effective are substance abuse treatment, early identification and placement, legal incentives to succeed, judicial supervision, multiple "second chances" to succeeds in the program intermediate sanctions and rewards, frequent drug testing, casse management, and a collaborative team approach. 11 resources and descriptions of research currently being conducted.