Description of original award (Fiscal Year 2007, $29,900)
Penn State University's non-credit certificate, Less-Lethal Weapons: Policies, Practices and Technologies, is a course of instruction designed to provide an introduction to less-lethal weapons. This study is a pilot program to evaluate this course that provides a general knowledge base of information, tactics, techniques and procedures related to the various types of less-lethal weapons. General legal, political, ethical and medical considerations involved in the use of less-lethal weapons are investigated. Additionally, tools not commonly utilized by civilian law enforcement but utilized by the military will be discussed as military and civilian forces increasingly need to cooperate in the war on terrorism and other joint operations such as witnessed in the recent response to hurricane Katrina.